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DateDate: 2-03-2019, 07:02

Every year, MIT Technology Review magazine publishes the TOP-10 major breakthroughs of the year. But this year the magazine is to offer a compilation to billionaire and philanthropist Bill Gates.
Personalized "vaccines" for cancer, innovative nuclear reactors and artificial meat - in the coming months, the world will see radical changes, according to Microsoft co-founder, according to Hi-Tech +.
 
Clever robots
Modern industrial robots are still inferior in dexterity to humans. They lack the skill and flexibility. Smart manipulators cannot, like a man, look at an object and understand how best to deal with it.
However, the devices are gradually “getting smarter” - they can already learn from their own mistakes and improve the skills of “grabbing”.
The leaders in this industry are the OpenAI laboratory, which last year introduced the roboruku Dactyl. Successes have also been achieved by robotics and engineers from Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Michigan and the University of California at Berkeley.
Gates believes that robotic manipulators will be widely adopted in 3-5 years.
By this time, they will be able to assemble gadgets in factories, load plates into the dishwasher, and help older people in everyday life.
 
New era of nuclear energy
Nuclear systems of the fourth generation, miniature modular nuclear power plants, thermonuclear reactors - in the near future, major changes are expected in the field of nuclear energy.
Manufacturers of new types of equipment are already cooperating with large energy companies, and in the 2020s there will be more such projects. Two such examples are Canadian Terrestrial Energy and American TerraPower.
The NuScale startup develops reduced reactor models that will reduce costs and at the same time reduce risks.
Thermonuclear fusion systems are unlikely to appear before 2030, but some companies will be able to make progress. Bill Gates makes a special bet on General Fusion and Commonwealth Fusion Systems, in which he had previously invested.
 
Forecast of preterm labor
Every year, 15 million children are born ahead of time, and prematurity is considered the main cause of death at an early age. Within five years, Gates is sure, patients will be able to undergo a blood test and determine the risk of premature birth.
Bioengineers from Stanford University offer to examine DNA and RNA particles in the blood of women to determine the likelihood of a premature baby.
Such a study could be carried out before, but before that it was necessary to perform a biopsy or amniocentesis.
 
Smart tablet-shaped probe
A miniature pill-shaped device makes detailed pictures of the intestines without anesthesia and the introduction of an endoscope. The procedure is already carried out by adults, and in 2019 children will be able to undergo it. The technology will reveal a little-known disease - enteric dysfunction.
The condition is characterized by intestinal inflammation, as a result, nutrients are poorly absorbed, and health deteriorates. In children, the developmental process is usually impaired and they lag behind their peers.
Earlier, Gates had already spoken about this problem - he noted that special probiotic preparations would help fight it.
 
Most often, the inhabitants of poor countries face the disease, but no one knows what provokes it.
Probiotics do help to improve the condition, but it is not always possible to diagnose dysfunction in time. A probe in the form of a tablet on a thin thread will help identify the problem at an early stage and take action as soon as possible.
In the US, they are already developing such smart pills equipped with miniature microscopes. They can not only examine the intestines, but also take biopsy samples.
 
Personalized Cancer Vaccines
Scientists are developing a technique that will allow the body to start the process of destroying cancer cells.
To do this, it is necessary to determine which mutations are characteristic for each type of tumor. After that, a “vaccine” is introduced into the body, which activates the immune system and forces it to fight cancer.
Healthy cells are not affected, and this distinguishes the procedure from traditional chemotherapy.
Research in this field has been conducted for more than 11 years, and many drugs are already being tested in humans. Developments in this area are being led by the German startup BioNTech in collaboration with the biotech corporation Genentech.
560 patients plan to take part in the trials, and the “vaccine” will be used to combat 10 types of tumors.
 
Artificial meat cutlets
Breeding livestock has a catastrophic effect on forests, ponds and levels of pollution. Meat production requires enormous resources, but gradually it is replaced by vegetable analogues that are not inferior to the original in taste and texture.
Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods startups are already selling their products in stores and restaurants. And by 2020, meat grown in the laboratory will go on sale. By this time, the first substitute promise to promise researchers from the Maastricht University.
 
However, analysts have recently calculated that in the production of meat from a test tube, only about